What is Paraphrasing in Research?
“Paraphrasing” means expressing the meaning of someone else’s words in your own words instead of quoting directly. Paraphrasing is applied both by the author of the text and by editors during the proofreading process.
By paraphrasing the work and arguments of others effectively, you can:
- save space and keep your study more focused
- distill complex information into language that general readers can understand
- avoid plagiarism (including self-plagiarism) and provide your own authorial voice in your paper
How to Paraphrase in Research
Direct Quote: simply a “copy-and-paste” of the original words and/or word order. In all research papers with formatting guidelines (APA, AMA, MLA, etc.), quoted text must be accompanied by quotation marks and in-text citations.
Paraphrasing: can include some key terms from the original work but must use new language to represent the original work—DO NOT COPY THE ORIGINAL WORK. When you paraphrase–that is, rewrite the text you want to use–you do not need to include quotation marks, but you must still cite the original work.
Paraphrasing Source Text
Step 1: Read important parts of the source material until you fully understand its meaning.
Step 2: Take some notes and list key terms of the source material.
Step 3: Write your own paragraph without looking at the source material, only using the key terms.
Step 4: Check to make sure your version captures important parts and intent of the source material.
Step 5: Indicate where your paraphrasing starts and ends using in-text citations.
When to Paraphrase vs Use Direct Quotes
Paraphrasing Examples in Research Writing
Use the following methods to make your paraphrases even stronger. Note that you should not apply only one of these rules in isolation—combine these techniques to reduce your chances of accidental plagiarism.
*Text in red indicates key changes from the source material.
Change the source text voice: active vs. passive voice
By changing the voice of the sentence (active voice to passive; passive voice to active—have a look at this article for details on the different roles of both voices in scientific writing), you can alter the general structure of your paraphrase and put it into words that are more your own.
Use a thesaurus to find synonyms and related terms
A thesaurus can be an excellent resource for finding terms that are synonymous with or similar to those in the original text, especially for non-native English speakers. However, be careful not to use terms that you don’t fully understand or that might not make sense in the context of your paper.
Include introductory phrases with signaling terms
Signaling terms (e.g., “they write,” “Kim notes that…” “He believes that…”) help smoothly introduce the work of other studies and let the reader know where your own ideas end and where the cited information begins.
Use specific signaling verbs to show your position
Authors also show their positions regarding the original content by using verbs that are neutral, that show agreement, or that show disagreement. A relative pronoun (“that,” “how,” “if”) is also used in many instances. Include these terms to introduce your position in paraphrased content.
Merge multiple sentences into a one- or two-sentence paraphrase
One major reason for paraphrasing is to capture the main idea of the original text without using so many words. Use only one sentence or two in your paraphrase to capture the main idea—even if the original is an entire paragraph.
Original Source Text:
The journal primarily considers empirical and theoretical investigations that enhance understanding of cognitive, motivational, affective, and behavioral psychological phenomena in work and organizational settings, broadly defined. Those psychological phenomena can be at one or multiple levels — individuals, groups, organizations, or cultures; in work settings such as business, education, training, health, service, government, or military institutions; and in the public or private sector, for-profit or nonprofit organizations.
(Source: Journal of Applied Psychology Website http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/)
Paraphrased Source Text:
The Journal of Applied Psychology accepts studies that increase understanding of a broad range of psychological phenomena and that apply to a variety of settings and levels, not limited by subgroup, institution, or sector (JAP, 2015).
Combine quotes and paraphrased text in the same sentence
Too often, research writers separate information from the current work and information cited from earlier studies into completely different sentences. This limits the dialogue between the works, makes it boring for readers, and can even create issues of plagiarism if the paper is composed of too much quoted material. Include direct quotes within your paraphrased sentences to fix all of these issues and make your research writing much smoother and more natural.
Some details from the original source are quoted because they are taken directly from the text. They provide important information that readers might need to know and it thus makes more sense to use quotes here.
Cite your sources, create a References list, and copy your citations to MS Word using the following Wordvice Citation Generators:
How to Paraphrase to Avoid Plagiarism
Although paraphrasing can be very helpful in helping to reduce instances of plagiarism, writers still need to follow the rules of citation and referencing carefully. Here are a few rules to keep in mind when paraphrasing any original material, whether from someone else’s published work or your own work.
Here are a few things you must keep in mind when paraphrasing any original material, even your own earlier publications.
- When you paraphrase, use your own terms along with the key terms from the source material.
- Even when you paraphrase using your own terms, you still must provide in-text citations (according to the specific formatting requirements—APA, AMA, MLA, etc.).
- If you are quoting or paraphrasing your own previous work, treat it as another person’s work (i.e., you must still use quotation marks and/or citations).
Example of Plagiarism in Paraphrasing
The following example is an attempt to paraphrase the above source text taken from the Journal of Applied Psychology website. Note that the author does not follow the above-mentioned rules to avoid plagiarizing the work. Psychology website. Note that the author does not follow the above-mentioned rules to avoid plagiarizing the work.
Plagiarized Source Text
The Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP 2015) accepts empirical and theoretical investigations that increase knowledge of motivational, affective, cognitive, and behavioral psychological phenomena in many settings, broadly conceived.
These phenomena can be at several levels—individual, teams, or cultures; in professional settings like business, education, training, health, government, or military institutions; and in either public or private sector, in nonprofit or for-profit institutions.
Some of the source text words have been changed or removed, but the underlined terms are identical to the original; overall the meaning and even the grammar structures have been copied. Finally, quotation marks are missing. Do not copy passages like this unless you put quotation marks around the content.
Examples of Multiple Attribution Methods:
In this paraphrase example, the details in the source text and how they have been changed in the paraphrase are indicated in red. Note the usage of signaling terms in each version to introduce the author’s content.
Original Source Text:
Fully grown penguins generate pressures of around 74 mm Hg to excrete liquid material and 430 mm Hg to excrete material of higher viscosity similar to that of oil.”
In her study of Antarctic penguin defecation habits, Brooks (1995, p.4) wrote, “fully grown Chinstrap penguins generate pressures of around 74 mm Hg to excrete liquid material and 430 mm Hg to excrete material of higher viscosity similar to that of oil.”
*Quotations around quotes; citations included; many details provided; a complete sentence is quoted.
When studying Chinstrap penguin defecation habits, Brooks (1995, p.4) observed that fully grown penguins generate a much higher pressure when excreting more viscous fecal matter.
*No quotation marks; citations included; the most important data fact is highlighted: “Penguins use more pressure to excrete thicker poo.”
When studying penguin defecation habits, Brooks (1995, p.4) observed that fully grown penguins vary in how they excrete waste, generating “pressures of around 74 mm Hg to excrete liquid material and 430 mm Hg to excrete material of higher viscosity similar to that of oil.”
*Quotation marks only around directly quoted information; citations included; the most important data fact is paraphrased; additional details provided by direct quote.
More Paraphrasing Examples for Reference
The following paraphrasing examples do not include citations and are therefore better used for reference when learning how to paraphrase original text. Therefore, the tips mentioned earlier in this article should be applied when paraphrasing published academic work.
|Original Sentence||Paraphrased Sentence|
|“The author’s life spanned years of incredible changes for African Americans in society.”||DuBois lived through at least two eras of liberating reforms and advances for African Americans.|
|“Any trip to France should include a visit to Marseille to visit the old piers of the 17th century.”||Be sure to include a Marseille pier-watching experience when visiting the South of France.|
|“Koala bears eat solely eucalyptus leaves and can consume up to 4 kg per day.||Koalas eat multiple kilograms of eucalyptus leaves per day, their only source of food.|
|“The price of a cruise trip usually includes meals, drinks, and sleeping accommodations, which make your vacation dollar stretch further.”||Most cruise trips include expenses such as meals, drinks, and a room for sleeping in their overall package price.|
|“The average citizen of the UK throws away 20 kg of plastic per month.”||British citizens are among the biggest users of plastic in Europe, throwing away kilograms of plastic each month.|
- Write the paraphrased text in your own words.
- Always include a citation with a paraphrase—you are still using someone else’s ideas
- When you use a direct quote, be sure to clarify the quote to show why you have included it.
- Avoid using blocks of quoted text, especially in papers in the natural sciences. You can almost always use a paraphrase/quote combination instead.
- Overall, focus on your study first—any extra information should be used to enhance your arguments or clarify your research.
After paraphrasing the source text in your research paper, be sure to get academic editing for your journal manuscript or essay editing for your admissions essay to ensure that your writing is ready for submission to journals or schools.
And visiting our academic resources pages to get more tips beyond how to paraphrase, including common academic phrases, the best transition words in academic papers, verbs for research writing, and many more articles on how to strengthen your academic writing skills.