Jan 23, 2022

When to Use “et al.” in Citations and References

Wordvice KH

We publish because we want to share our knowledge and because we want recognition for our work. We acknowledge people’s ideas and findings by providing citations. Unfortunately, however, the rules regarding this common practice are not always easy to decipher, even for the best of us! We have published a number of other articles that help you navigate citation requirements, for example on the best citation format for science papers, on how many references you should include in your research paper, and on the general differences between common citation styles.

This article focuses on how to name the authors of cited works, including when to use the abbreviated Latin term “et al.” As with all advice, please make sure to follow the relevant journal guidelines concerning punctuation, citation style, etc. Sadly, publishers don’t always agree on the rules! But let’s start with some general definitions, and then look at specific rules of the most common style guides.

Table of Contents:

  1. What Are the Main Types of Citations? 
  2. Why Do We Use “et al.” in Citations? 
  3. Using “et al.” vs “etc.”
  4. When Do We Use “et al.” in Citations? 
  5. Using “et al.” in APA Citations
  6. Using “et al.” in Chicago Style Citations
  7. Using “et al.” in MLA Citations

What Are the Main Types of Citations?

When referring to published literature, you need to provide details so that others can find and review the original material you base your ideas and claims on. In your research paper, you can make references to source materials using either endnotes and footnotes (i.e., numbers in the text that refer to the bottom of the page or the end of the paper) or in-text citations. Both styles require you to also provide a reference list at the end of the document.

  • In-text (or parenthetical) citations: When referencing other literature by author name or title in the text paragraphs of your paper, you are using in-text citations. Another similar method of citing is using parenthetical citations, as the referencing information is usually placed within parentheses.
  • Endnotes and footnotes: Endnotes and footnotes are a convenient way to declutter your writing. They are simple notation systems that allow you to use numbers in the body of a text to reference a cited work. Each number corresponds to further information or a citation entry found at the end of a manuscript (for endnotes) or at the bottom of the page where the cited reference is mentioned (for footnotes). Footnotes are rarely found in scientific writing but frequently used in the humanities and social sciences. Also, endnotes often replace parenthetical in-text citations in scientific journals these days – make sure you pay attention to the journal guidelines when you prepare your manuscript so that you don’t have to suddenly change your entire citation style before submitting or during the review process.
  • Reference list: A reference list compiles all the works cited within a document for ease of reference and is included at the end of a manuscript. It must be included regardless of how source material is acknowledged within the main body of your article. The author guidelines of your target journal will tell you whether the list has to be ordered alphabetically or in order of appearance in the text (when using a numbered system), and what general style it has to adhere to.

Why Do We Use “et al.” in Citations?

The Latin term “et al.” is short for “et alii” and means “and others.” The abbreviation is used when citing a source with multiple authors. Its function is similar to that of “et cetera”, another common Latin phrase that is usually abbreviated as “etc.” and means “and other similar things.”

Using “et al.” vs “etc.”

As stated above, “et al.” is used strictly when talking about people, while “etc.” is only used for things. Apart from this key difference, they have the same function: replacing a list.

When to Use “et al.” in Citations

We cannot stress this enough, but always double-check your journal or relevant style guide regarding Latin terms and citations. There is no uniform rule on when to use “et al.”, but at least the phrase’s spelling is consistent. Always write “et al.” in lowercase and include a period after “al.”, even when it appears in the middle of a sentence. The abbreviation “et al.” replaces author names in endnotes, footnotes, and in-text citations; it depends on the target journal whether “author et al.” citation style can also be used in the reference list or whether all author names need to be spelled out in that section. In the following section, you will find further information on how to cite references according to the most common citation styles and examples.

Using “et al.” in APA Citations

The APA style is frequently used in social science publications. Examples of book and journal citations are provided below. For information about other sources and special cases, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition (2020).

In-text or parenthetical citations (author-date system)

The APA style uses the author-date notation, and the in-text citation rules apply to both digital and print editions of books and journals. Also, while providing page number references is optional for paraphrased statements, the APA recommends including them. Also, note that APA style uses the ampersand (&) to list author names in parentheses.

Number of authorsAuthor names mentioned in your statementQuoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning the author in your statement
One[Last name] ([Year]) has argued that [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).

Miller (2017) has argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, 2017, pp. 23-25).
Two
(Use “&”)
[Last name] & [Last name] ([Year]) have argued that [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).

Miller & Jones (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], & [Last name], [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith & Wallace, 2015, p. 34).
Three to five
(Use “&” for first mention and “et al.” for subsequent references to the same work)
First mention:[Last name], [Last name], & [Last name] ([Year]) have argued that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).

Miller, Smith, & Thompson (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). 

Subsequent mentions:[Last name] et al. ([Year]) have argued that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).

Miller et al. (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14).
First mention:[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], & [Last name], [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, Wallace, & Thompson, 2015, p. 34).

Subsequent mentions:[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al., [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al., 2015, p. 34).
Six or more[Last name] et al. ([Year]) have argued that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).

Miller et al. (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al., 2015, p. 34).

Reference lists

The same author rules apply to all source media including books, print periodicals, electronic journals, etc. Also, since reading electronic journals has become the norm for academics, the APA recommends including a DOI number for each journal article referenced, even if you accessed the document in print. Do not include a period (.) after the DOI information. Also note that APA reference lists should not contain “et al.”, and that the author-number thresholds for formatting rules in the reference list are different from those for in-text citations specified above.

Number of authorsNotation
OneBooks:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].

Smith, M. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.

Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXX

Miller, J. M. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
Two
(Use “&”)
Books: [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].

Miller, J. M., & Wallace, R. A. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.

Journals: [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXX

Miller, J. M., & Wallace, R. A. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
Three to 20
(List all authors; commas separate author names; use “&” before the last author name)
Books: [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., …, & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State Abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].

Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., …, & Johnson, C. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.

Journals: [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., …, [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXX

Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., …,  & Johnson, C. T. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
More than 20
(List the first 19 authors, then use an ellipsis (…) and list the last author;  no “&” before the final author name)
Books: [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., … [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State Abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].

Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., Smith, M. T., Lewis, R. V., Higgs, R. Q., Young, D. A., … Johnson, C. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.

Journals: [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., … [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXX

Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., Smith, M. T., Lewis, R. V., Higgs, R. Q., Young, D. A., … Johnson, C. T. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX

Endnotes and footnotes

The APA style does not use footnotes and strongly discourages the use of endnotes, which should only provide tangential information. However, sometimes content notes are necessary. In such cases, use the notation covered in Section 2.12 of the APA Publication Manual.

Using et al. in Chicago Style Citations

The Chicago style is commonly used in the humanities. Below, we only comment on general book and journal citation formats. For additional information, see Wordvice’s guide on the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. For an example of an annotated paper that uses bibliographic notation (i.e., numbers that refer to sources in a list), see the Purdue Owl’s NB sampler. See an example of an author-date paper.

Note that for formally published online sources, such as electronic academic journals, you do not need to include access date information except if required by your publisher or discipline. If no DOI is available, provide the uniform resource locator (URL). Unlike APA style, Chicago style does NOT use the ampersand (&) in name lists; instead, use “and.” Additionally, an author’s given names (first and middle) should be written in full (no initials) unless the author consistently publishes using initials.

Et al. in in-text or parenthetical citations (author-date system)

Parenthetical citations are more commonly adopted by authors in the social, physical, and natural sciences. The same notation is used for digital and print editions of books and journals.

Number of authorsAuthor names mentioned in your statementQuoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning the author in your statement
One[Last name] ([Year]) argues that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).

Miller (2017) argues that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith 2017, 23-25).
Two to three
(Use “and”)
[Last name] and [Last name] ([Year]) argue that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).

Miller and Jones (2017) argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], and [Last name] [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, Rogers, and Wallace 2015, 34).
Four or more
(Use “et al.” after the first author)


[Last name] et al. ([Year]) argue that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).

Miller et al. (2017) argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al. 2015, 34).

Don’t use et al. in reference lists

Books

Number of authorsBibliographic system (humanities)Author-date system (social, natural, and physical sciences)
One[Last name], [First name(s)]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher], [Year].

Smith, Mary. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo, 2017.
[Last name], [First name(s)]. [Year]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher].

Smith, Mary. 2017. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo.
Two or more
(List ALL authors)
[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher], [Year].

Smith, Mary T., Mark Allen, Helen Carter, …, and George Turner. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo, 2017.
[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher].

Smith, Mary T., Mark Allen, Helen Carter, …, and George Turner. 2017. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo.

Journals

Number of authorsBibliographic system (humanities)Author-date system (social, natural, and physical sciences)
OnePrint:[Last name], [First name(s)]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article].

Miller, Jack M. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

Online:[Last name], [First name(s)]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].

Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.
Print:[Last Name], [First Name(s)]. [Year]. “[Article Title].” [Journal Title] [Volume Number], no. [Issue Number]: [Page Range for Whole Article].

Miller, Jack M. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45.

Online:[Last Name], [First name(s)]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].

Miller, Jack. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.
More than two
(List ALL authors)
Print:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article].

Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

Online:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI number].

Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.
Print:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article].

Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45.

Online:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].

Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Et al in endnotes and footnotes (bibliographic system)

Books

Number of authorsBibliographic system (humanities)
OneFirst mention: [First name(s)] [Last name], [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].

Mary T. Smith, Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 23-35.

Subsequent mentions: [Last Name], [Shortened book title], [Page(s) referenced].

Smith, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 55.
Two to threeFirst mention: [First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].

Mary T. Smith, Leslie Wilson, and George Turner, Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 68-69.

Subsequent mentions: [Last name], [Last name], and [Last name], [Shortened Book Title], [Page(s) referenced].

Smith, Wilson, and Turner, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 70-75.
Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
First mention: [First name(s)] [Last name] et al., [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].

Mary T. Smith et al., Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 23-35.

Subsequent mentions: [Last name] et al., [Shortened Book Title], [Page(s) referenced].

Smith et. al, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 55.

Journals

Number of authorsBibliographic system (humanities)
OneFirst mention:
Print: [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

Online: [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):
[Last Name], “Shortened Article Title,”] [Page(s) referenced].

Miller, “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.
Two to threeFirst mention:
Print: [First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article Title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller, Mary Rogers, and David L. Smith, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

Online: [First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller, Mary Rogers, and David L. Smith, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):
[Last name], [Last name], and [Last name], “Shortened article title,”] [Page(s) referenced].

Miller, Rogers, and Smith, “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.
Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
First mention:
Print: [First name(s)] [Last name] et al., “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

Online: [First name(s)] [Last name] et al. “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):
[Last name] et al., “Shortened article title,”] [Page(s) referenced].

Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.

Using et. al in MLA Citations

The MLA style is commonly used by writers in the humanities. General book and journal citation formations are highlighted below. For information regarding other media and special cases, see Wordvices guide on the MLA Handbook style rules.

Et al. in in-text (parenthetical)

The MLA style uses an author-page style instead of an author-date style.

Number of authorsAuthor names mentioned in your statementQuoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning the author in your statement
One[Last name] argues that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).

Miller argues that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith 23-25).
Two(Use “and”)[Last name] and [Last name] argue that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]). 

Miller and Jones argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). 
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] and [Last name] [Page(s) referenced]).

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith and Wallace 34).
Three or more
(Use “et al.”)
[Last name] et al. argue that [“quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]). 

Miller et al. argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14).
[“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Page(s) referenced]). 

“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al. 34).

Et al. in reference list (works cited page)

Number of authorsBooksJournals
One[Last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year]. 

Smith, Mary T. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017.
Print: [Last name], [First name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Date], pp. [Pages]. 

Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.

Online: [Last name], [First name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Date], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].

Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.
Two[Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year].

Smith, Mary T., and George Thompson. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017.
Print: [Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages].

Miller, Jack, and George Thompson. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.

Online: [Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].

Miller, Jack, and George Thompson. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.
Three or more[Last name], [First name], et al. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year].

Smith, Mary T., et al. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017.
Print: [Last name], [First name], et al. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages].

Miller, Jack, et al. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.

Online: [Last name], [First name], et al. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].

Miller, Jack, et al. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.

Et al in endnotes and footnotes

The MLA style does not generally encourage endnotes and footnotes; however, it does accommodate their use when needed to clarify points that don’t otherwise belong in the main body of your work. The formats for these notes are similar to the format used for in-text citations, but without the parentheses:

One author: See [last name] [page range]

See Johnson 5-15 for a further discussion of this phenomenon.

Multiple authors/studies: 

[Comment]. See [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range]

Several other studies make the same argument. See, for example, Walker and Francis 112-118, Thomson 20-43, and Muller 78-90.

Regarding [content topic], see [last name] [page range] and [last name] [page range]; for [content topic], see [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], and [last name] [page range].

Regarding this phenomenon’s impact on trauma caretakers, see Miller 54-68 and Willis 23-25; for alternative explanations, see Jones 23-25, Thompson 64-55, and Smith 12-15.

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